FROM CONTEMPORARY SCIENCE TO VICTORIAN PROTO-SCIENCE: ECTOPLASM

Below are some examples of Victorian era "documentation" of ectoplasm conjured by mediums, Spiritualists, and enterprising photographers adept at in-camera manipulation and darkroom compositing.

The medium Stanislawa P: emission and resorption of an ectoplasmic substance through the mouth .  Albert von Schrenck-Notzing, s ilver gelatin print, 1913.

The medium Stanislawa P: emission and resorption of an ectoplasmic substance through the mouth. Albert von Schrenck-Notzing, silver gelatin print, 1913.

Pictured on the left is Canadian Medium Mary Marshall as photographed by T.G. Hamilton in 1929.

Pictured on the left is Canadian Medium Mary Marshall as photographed by T.G. Hamilton in 1929.

The medium Stanislawa P: emission and resorption of an ectoplasmic substance through the mouth  .   Albert von Schrenck-Notzing, s  ilver gelatin print, 1913.

The medium Stanislawa P: emission and resorption of an ectoplasmic substance through the mouthAlbert von Schrenck-Notzing, silver gelatin print, 1913.